Early Inter-racial Oneness Pentecostalism is a look at what is perhaps the least-known chapter in the history of American Pentecostalism. The study of the first thirty years of Oneness Pentecostalism (1901-1931) is especially relevant due to its unparalleled inter-racial commitment to an all-flesh, all-people, counter-cultural Pentecost. This in-depth study details the lives of its earliest primary architects, including G.T. Haywood, R.C. Lawson, J.J. Frazee, and E.W. Doak, and the emergence of Oneness Pentecostalism and its flagship organisation, Pentecostal Assemblies of the World.
This is a one-of-a-kind history of Pentecostalism, seen through the lens of the Jesus’ Name movement and the inter-racial struggles of the period, interlinking the significance of Charles Parham, William Seymour and the Azusa Street revival, COGIC, the newly formed Assemblies of God, and dozens of the earliest Oneness organisational bodies. Exploration of the significance of the role of African American Indianapolis leader G.T. Haywood is central, as are the development of the movement’s key centres in the U.S. and the ultimate loss of inter-racial unity after more than thirty years. These crucial events indelibly marked the U.S. as well as the global missionary and indigenous expansion of Oneness Pentecostalism worldwide.
Foreword by Allan H. Anderson
1. Introduction: “Without the Camp”
2. G.T. Haywood and the Black Roots of Pentecostalism
3. The Azusa Street Revival and Early Oneness Pentecostalism
4. The Frazee Era Emergence of Oneness Pentecostalism and the Transitional Pentecostal Assemblies of the World
5. The Interracial Doak-Haywood Golden Era of Oneness Pentecostalism
6. Redrawing the Color Line in Early Oneness Pentecostalism
7. The Haywood Era in Oneness Pentecostalism: The Reshaping of Its Legacy and Organizational Context
8. Conclusion: “Some Day, Some Happy Day!”
Appendix A: Profiles of Early U.S. Oneness Pentecostal Pioneers
Appendix B: Early Oneness Pentecostal Missions (1914-1930)
Endorsements and Reviews
If ‘the colour line was washed away in the blood!’ at Azusa Street, then its effects were felt longest and strongest in Indianapolis and other circles of the Pentecostal Assemblies of the World. If so, then G.T. Haywood is not merely William J. Seymour’s successor but emerges as the exemplary architect of the modern Pentecostal vision that the Spirit has been poured out on all flesh – white and black – equally.
Amos Yong, J. Rodman Williams Professor of Theology and Dean, School of Divinity, Regent University, Virginia
French uncovers one of the most intriguing chapters in early pentecostal history. The Revival’s aspiration for oneness of spirit and racial unity was embraced from the beginning by the Pentecostal Assemblies of the World and its towering figure, G.T. Haywood. Precise in detail and thorough in substance, this volume is an essential resource for understanding early Oneness Pentecostalism and its radical vision of unity.
David A. Reed, Professor Emeritus, Wycliffe College, University of Toronto